PubMan Func Spec Export/MPG

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MPG Citation Style[edit]

The Citation Style of the Max Planck Society[edit]

Basic Rules[edit]

  • If one field is missing, just display the rest of the fields.
  • There is no . (full stop) at the end of a citation.


  • The names of the authors are represented as sure name, initial of the given name, e.g.: Mustermann, M.
  • The initials have to correspond with the author's given name.
  • A single initial is abbreviated by dot, like A.
  • Two or more initials are either seperated by blank A. B. or by hyphen C.-D.
  • Aristocracy titles are prefixed the surname and can be used written out or abbreviated. Upper and lower case is to be used corresponding to the original spelling. E.g.: von Test, v. Test, van Beethoven
  • Two or more authors are connected by semikolon and blank. The last author is suffixed by colon. Mustermann, M.; Test, K.-H., v. Frohsinn, W. J.:


  • When genre is book, monograph, book chapter, proceedings or conference paper editors are to desribe analogly to the authors.
  • The list of editors is prefixed by "Hrsg.",respectively "Eds." In case of only one editor use "Ed.".
  • Within the reference the list of editors is enclosed in brackets.E.g.: (Eds. Mustermann, M., Musterfrau, M.P., Test, K.-H.).

Publication Status[edit]

The data available for a citation depends on the status a publication is in. For some genres the status is part of the citation.

A publication can be in one of the following status:

  • created: publication is created but not yet submitted to a publisher.
  • submitted: publication is submitted to a publisher, but not yet accepted for publication.
  • unpublished/in revision: the publication is in review procedure. Publication is possible but not yet taken for granted.
  • accepted: publication is accepted for publishing; date, volume and issue are not defined yet.
  • accepted/in press: publication is in printing procedure; date, volume and issue are defined, pages are usually not defined yet.
  • published in print: publication is published, name of journal/publisher, volume, issue and pages are available.
  • published online: publication is published online in the first instance and will be published in print later. (ePub ahead of print). Publication is published online exclusively (online published). Besides Journal, publisher and DOI there are no further data available.

Citation Rules for genres[edit]

Below you can find the specification for each genre. Data in square brackets is not part of the specifications. For each genre there is at least one example.

Journal Article, Case Note, Editorial, Newspaper Article[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Title of Article. Titel of Journal Volume (Issue), Sequence Number Page from- page til Year (Status of Publication)

Journal Article published in a Special Issue:

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel of Article. Titel of Special Journal Issue, Sequence Number Page from- page til Year of special Journal Issue. Titel of Journal Volume (Issue)

  • Authors are represented bold.
  • Is the publication in status "published in print" the publication status is not applied.
  • When there is no publishing status, year is to enclose in brackets. E.g.: Abraham, N.M.: Synaptik Inhibition in the Olfactory Bulb Accelerates Odoer Dicrimination in Mice. Neuron (2010)
  • In certain publishing status like "accepted", "accepted/in press", "submitted" and "published online" according to section "publication status" of this specification some data like volume, issue and pages is not available yet. In these cases the concerned data can be leaved out.
  • Use Abbreviation of Journal Titel.
  • If the abbreviation of a Journal is not known, use full name.
  • When Articel is only published online, required data is Journal, Publisher and Doi. The DOI should be added at the end of the citation, if available. If DOI is not available, please use identifier of type URL, preceded by the words "Retrieved from". If DOI or URL are available more than once, please only take the first value.
  • Sequence Number is only added, when no page numbers are available. If there is a sequence number and page number available, both shall be displayed.

Example for Journal Article

Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.: Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Neuron 6 (3), 2408-2412 2010 (in press)

Example for Journal Article without page numbers

Lieges, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Streubuhr, C.; Brazda, T.; Zhou, P.: Transient (000)-order attenuation effects in ultrafast transmission electron diffraction. Journal of Applied Physics 109 (6), 063519

Example for Journal Article without status available

Krishan, B.; Sante, A.; Papa, M.A.: The Hough transform search for continous gravitational waves. Phys. Rev. 70 (8), (2004)

Example for article published online

Meier, B.; Hanser, V.: Children and situation models of multiple events. Dev. Psych. 2011 (Published online) doi 10.1037/a0025526

Example for Newspaper Article

Basedow, J.: Die große Koalition ist ein labiles Geschöpf. Die Zeit 124 (74), 25-28 (2011)

Example for Case Note

Hellgardt, A.: Rechtsmittel gegen Zurückweisung eines Musterfeststellungsantrags nach dem KapMuG. Wuß, 315-316 (2008)

Example for Editorial

Hilty, R.: Der "zweite Korb" - ein erster Schritt in die richtige Richtung. MMR 7 (11), 713 - 714 (2004)

Example for Journal Article published in an Special Journal Issue:

Gullberg, M.; Narashimhan, B.: What gestures reveal about the development of semantic distinctions in Dutch childerns's placement verbs. The typology and semantics of locative predication: Posturals, positionals and other beasts 316-318 (2007). Linguistics 45 (5)

Book, Collected Edition, Commentary, Encyclopedia, Festschrift, Handbook, Manual, Monograph, Multi Volume[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B.: Title (Ed[s]. Editor, A. A., Editor, A. A.). Name of Publisher, Place of Publisher (Year)

  • Fields "Name of Publisher" and "Year" are mandatory.
  • If there is only one Editor use "Ed." in the Brackets.

Example for Book

Staab, H.A.; Bauer, H.: Azolides in Organic Synthesis and Biochemistry (Eds. Staab, H.A., Bauer, H.). Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (1998)

Example for Monograph

Lamping, M.: Patentschutz und Marktmacht. Carl Heymanns, Köln (2010)

Example for Commentary

Henning-Bodewik, F.; Bartels, G.: Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb. Beck, München (2011)

Example for Festschrift

Basedow, J.; Drobnig, U.; Ellger, R.; Hopt, K.: Aufbruch nach Europa. 75 Jahre Max-Planck-Institut für Privatrecht. (Eds. Basedow, J., Drobnig, U., Ellger, R., Hopt, K.). Mohr Siebeck, München (2001)

Example for Handbook

Zimmermann, R.; Reimann, M.: The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2006)

Example for Manual

Turabian, K. L.; William, J. M.; Colomb, G. T: A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Thesis and Dissertations: Chicago Style for students and researchers. (Ed. University of Chicago Press Staff). University of Chigaco Press, Chicago (2009)

Example for Collected Edition

Gibbons, D.: Batman versus Predator: The collected edition. (Ed. Kahan, B.). D C Comics, London (1993)

Example for Multi Volume

Lee, J.: Transmambrane Receptors and Channels: A Multi-Volume Treaties. (Ed. Lee, A. J.). Jai Pri Inc. (1997)

Example for Encyclopedia

Crystal, D.: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press (2003)

Book Chapter, Contribution to a collected Edition, Contribution to a Commentary, Contribution to an Encyclopedia, Contribution to a Festschrift, Contribution to a Handbook[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Title. In: Book, Page from- til (Ed[s]. Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B.). Name of Publisher, Place of Publisher (Year)

  • Fields "Book", "Pages", "Name of Publisher" and "Year" are mandatory.

Example for Book Chapter

Kuner, T.; Tokumaru, H.; Augustine, G. J.: Peptides as probes of protein-protein interactions involved in neutrotransmitter release. In: Current Topics in Membranes, 123-168 (Eds. Sidney, A. S., McIntosh, T.J.). Academic Press, San Diego (2002)

Example for Contribution to a Handbook

Hilty, R. M.: Copryright Law and Scientific Research. In: Copyright Law: A Handbook on Contemporary Research, 315-354 (Ed. Tottenman, P.). Edgar Elgar, Cheltenham (2009)

Example for Contribution to an Encyclopedia

Strauss, P.: Patentrecht. In: Handwörterbuch des Europäischen Privatrechts, 1136 - 1140 (Eds. Basedow, J., Hopt K. J., Zimmermann, R.). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen (2009)

Example for Contribution to a Commentary

Jaeger, T.: Steuerliche Maßnahmen. In: Münchener Kommentar zum Deutschen und Europäischen Wettbewerbsrecht (Kartellrecht) (Eds. Montag, F., Säcker F. J.). Beck, München (2011)

Example for a Contribution to a Festschrift

Basedow, J.: Der Standort des Max-Planck-Instituts - zwischen Praxis, Rechtspolitik und Privatwissenschaftsrecht. In: Aufbruch nach Europa. 75 Jahre Max-Planck-Institut für Privatrecht (Eds. Basedow, J., Drobnig, U., Ellger, R., Kötz, D.). Mohr Siebeck, München (2001)

Example for a Contribution to a collected Edition

Zimmermann, R.: Rückabwicklung nach Widerruf. In: Revision des Verbraucher-Acquis (Eds. Eidenmüller, H., Grigoleit, H. C., Jansen, G., Zimmermann, R.). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen (2011)

Book Review[edit]

Author, A. A. (Year of the Review) Review of: Author, A. A., Titel of reviewed Work (Ed. Editor, A. A.). Place of Publication, Publisher. Source of Review Volume, Pages from-til (year)

  • Mandatory field are "Source of Review" and "Year of Publication"
  • Fields in blue regards to the reviewed work, Fields in green regards to review.
  • If there is no author for the reviewed work, write titel direclty after "Review of"

Example for Book Review:

Schmoke, U. W. (2009) Review of: Renner, F. A., Die Rechte der Frauen. Berlin, Thiememann (2008). Deutsche Notarztzeitschrift, 615-617

Conference Paper and Meeting Abstract[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. In: Proceedings, Page from-til (Ed[s].: Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B.). Conference Title, Place of the Conference, Date of the Conference from-til. Organization, Name of Publisher, Place of Publisher (Year)

  • Fields "Name of Proceedings", "Date of the Conference from-til" are mandatory.

Example for Conference Paper

Sprengel, R.; Fernholz, D.; Schneider, R.; Xhen-Xing, T.; Schödel, F.; Weimer, T.; Kaleta, E. F.; Will, H.: Hepatitis B Viren bei Enten, Gänsen und Graureihern: Epidemiologie, Diagnostik und Pathogenese. In: Sechste Tagung über Vogelkrankheiten: Schwerpunkt Tauben und Wassergeflügel, Sechste Tagung über Vogelkrankheiten, München. DVG, Gießen (1989)

Example for Meeting Abstract

Massen, C.; Prinz, W.: Automatische Handlungsaktivierung bei der Beobachung von Werkzeughandlungen. In: Tagungsband der 49. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen in Trier. 49. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen, Trier. Pabst, Lengenrich (2007)

Conference Report[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. Conference Title, Place of the Conference, Date of the Conference from-til. Organization, Name of Publisher, Place of Publisher (Year)

  • Fields "Conference Title", "Place of the Conference", "Date of the Conference from-til" are mandatory.

Stehlik, D.; Haas, H.; Zimmermann, H.: Efficient Donor-Singlet to Host-Triplet Energy Transfer in Fluorene Single Cristals. Molecular Crystal Symposium, Schloss Elmau, Germany 1973/05/20 - 1973/05/25


Author, A. A.: Titel. Year (Publication status)

  • if a manuscript is not published, use publication status "unpublished manuscript".

Example for Manuscript

Blench, R.: A dictionary of Eggon. 2006 (unpublished manuscript)


Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.; Author, C. C.: Titel. Year (Status)

  • Mandatory field is Year

Example for Opinion

Kitz, V.: Stellungnahme zum Regierungsentwurf eines Gesetztes zur Verbesserung der Durchsetzung von Rechten des geistigen Eigentums. 2007 (unpublished)


Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Title. working paper [Arbeitspapier, Forschungspapier] Place of Publication|Organization Volume, Page from- page til (Year)

  • Mandatory Field is year.

Evans, N. R. D.; Wilkins, D. P.: An Australian test of universal claims about the semantic structure of sensory verbs and their extension into the domain of Cognition. Arbeitspapier Köln 32, 1- 63 (1998)

Patent and Thesis[edit]

Author, A. A.: Titel. Place of Publication (University/Faculty[Place]), (Year)

  • Fields "Place of Publication" and "University" are mandatory.
  • Is to be used for all kinds of Thesis

Example Thesis

Helmchen, F.: Signalverarbeitung in Dendriten von neokortikalen Pyramidenzellen: floureszenzmikroskopische Untersuchungen in vitro und in vivo. Heidelberg (Ruprecht-Karls- Universität Heidelberg), (2004)

Example Patent

Miller, G.: Antenne und Antennenanordnung für Magnetresonanz-Anwendungen. München (Europäisches Patentamt), (2010)

Poster and Talk[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. Conference Title, Organization, Place of the Conference, (Year)

  • Fields "Conference Titel", "Place of Conference" and "Year" are mandatory.

Example Talk:

Broser, P. J.: Bridging the Gap. ZP Journal Club, Max-Planck-Institut für Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg (2003)

Example Poster:

Schweizer, P.; Runge, S.; Gessner, G.; Heinemann, S. H.; Zehelein, J.; Koenen, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H. E.; Koenen, M.; Katus, H. A.; Becker, R.; Thomas, D.: Double heterozygous mutation of KCNH2 and ANK2 leads to phenotypical aggravation of congenital long QT syndrome. Heart Rhythm 2010, Denver, Colorado, USA (2010)


Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Name of Proceedings (Ed[s]. Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B.). Conference Title, Place of Conference, Date of Conference from - til. Organization , Publisher's Name, Place of Publisher (Year).

  • Fields "Name of Proceedings", "Conference Titel", "Place of Conference", "Date of Conference" are mandatory.

Example for Proceedings

Kollhoff, L.; Heckel, D. G.: Proceedings of the 6th International workshop on management of diamondback moth and other crucifer insect pests. 6th International workshop on management of diamondback moth and other crucifer insect pests, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 2011/03/21 - 2011/03/25

Report and Series[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. Name of Publisher, Place of Publisher (Year)

  • Fields "Name of Publisher", "Place of Publisher" and "Year" are mandatory.

Example Series:

Hopt, K.; Basedow, J.; Zimmermann, R.: Studien zum ausländischen und internationalen Privatrecht. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen (1995-2008)

Example Report:

Georghiou, G. I.; Denholm, I.; Heckel, D. G.; Hemingway, J.; Mouches, C.: The potential for tsetse flies to develop resistance to insecticides. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1993)

Software (in PubMan genre "other")[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. Version of Software Operating System [Version of Operating System] (Year)

  • Field "Year" is mandatory.

Sätzler, K.: CAR - ein Programm zur Rekonstruktion von elektronenmikroskopischen Serienschnitten. Vers. 2.0 f. SGI Irix 6.xx (2002)


Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel. University/Faculty Place, Duraton from-til

  • Field "University/Faculty" is mandatory.

Example for "Teaching"

Reinhold, W.; Heidemann, R. M.: Simulation elektronischer Schaltungen mit PSPICE. Universität Leipzig, 04.04.2011 – 15.07.2011

Generic Genre for Publication with 1st and 2nd source[edit]

Author, A. A.; Author, B. B.: Titel of Publication. Titel of first Source Page from- Page til Year. Titel of second Source


Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Kelic, A.; Langanke, K.: Nucleosynthesis in neutrino heated matter: the vρ-process and the r-process. International Symposium on Nuclear Astrophysics - Nuclei in the Cosmos - IX 325-330 2006. Proceedings of Science

Possible Genres for Publications:

  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Paper
  • Contribution to Festschrift
  • Contribution to Collection
  • Contribution to Commentary
  • Contribution to Handbook

Possible Genres for 1st source:

  • Book
  • Journal
  • Proceedings
  • Monograph
  • Collected Edition
  • Handbook
  • Commentary
  • Festschrift

Possible Genres for 2nd source:

  • Series